Roberto Michels

Maria Costanza Gallino

Roberto Michels' family and cultural hinterland

A vanished bourgeoisie.

Genealogical notes for a historical reconstruction of the cultural and family biography of Roberto Michels.

Foreword by Luigi R. Einaudi

Research by Maria Costanza Gallino

Without Maria Costanza, Roberto Michels' German hinterland would have remained neglected. Shortly after the death of our grandfather in 1936 at the age of sixty, his widow Gisella Michels Lindner rented from Luigi Einaudi the 'main floor' of the Tecc [2] farmhouse in Dogliani, a beautiful village in the Langhe which was then still isolated and self-sufficient. There she moved her husband's library and papers from Rome.

Following Gisella’s death in 1954, books and documents remained closed for about twenty years, until her daughter Manon, with the help of her husband Mario Einaudi, transferred thousands of documents to Turin to the Foundation Luigi Einaudi, creating the Roberto Michels Archive which in recent years has been used by notable scholars. [3]

Much documentation, however, was not in the archive. Like Einaudi, the Michels never threw anything away. There were so many materials at Tecc that my parents divided them up: the professional papers were transferred to Turin ...


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